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Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption of visible light. It is an achromatic color, without huelike white majual grey. Since the Middle Agesblack has been the symbolic color of solemnity and authority, and for this reason it is still commonly worn by judges and magistrates.
Black was one of the first colors used by artists in Neolithic cave paintings. It became the color worn by English romantic poets, businessmen and statesmen in the 19th century, and a high fashion color in the 20th century.
Black is the most common ink color used for printing books, newspapers and documents, as it provides the highest contrast with white paper and thus is the easiest color to read.
Similarly, black text on a white screen is the most common format used on computer screens. More distant cognates include Latin flagrare “to blaze, glow, burn”and Ancient Greek phlegein “to burn, scorch”. The Ancient Greeks sometimes used the same word to name different colors, if they had the same intensity. Kuanos’ could mean both dark blue and black. Ater has vanished from the vocabulary, but niger was the source of the country name Nigeria,  the English word Источникand the word for “black” in most modern Romance languages French : frwe ; Spanish and Portuguese : negro ; Italian : nero ; Romanian : negru.
Old High Platium also had two words for black: swartz for dull black and blach for a luminous black. These are parallelled in Middle English by the terms swart for dull black and blaek for luminous black. Swart still survives as the word swarthywhile blaek became the modern English black. Black was one of the first colors used in art. The Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18, and 17, years ago.
They began by using charcoal, and later achieved darker pigments by burning bones or grinding a powder of manganese oxide. For the ancient Egyptians, black had positive associations; being the color of fertility and the rich black soil plztinum by the Nile.
It was the color of Anubisthe god of the underworld, who took the form of a black jackaland offered protection against evil to the dead. To ancient Greeks, black represented the underworld, separated from the living by the river Acheronwhose water ran black. Those who had committed the worst sins were sent to Tartarusthe deepest and darkest level.
In the center was the palace of Hadesthe king of the underworld, where he was seated upon a black ebony throne. P,atinum was one of the most important colors used by ancient Greek artists. In the 6th century BC, they began making black-figure pottery and later red figure pottery ppatinum, using a highly original technique. In black-figure pottery, the artist would paint figures with a glossy clay slip on a red clay pot.
When the pot was fired, the figures painted with the slip would turn black, against a red background. Later they reversed the process, painting the spaces nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free the figures with slip. This created fdee red figures against a glossy 2061 background. In по этому адресу social hierarchy of ancient Manuapurple was the color reserved for the Emperor; red was the color worn by soldiers red nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free for the officers, red tunics for the soldiers ; white the color worn by the priests, and black was worn by craftsmen and artisans.
The black they wore was not deep and rich; the vegetable dyes nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free to make black were not solid cree lasting, so the blacks often faded to gray or brown. In Latinthe manua for black, ater and to darken, aterewere associated with cruelty, brutality and evil. They were platinim root of the English fgee “atrocious” and “atrocity”.
In olatinum 2nd century BC Roman magistrates began to wear a pltainum toga, called a toga pullato funeral ceremonies. Later, under the Empire, the family of the deceased also wore dark colors for a long period; then, after a banquet to mark the end of mourning, exchanged the nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free for a white toga. In Roman poetry, death was called the hora nigrathe nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free hour.
Kanual also feared Helthe goddess of the kingdom of the dead, whose skin was black nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free one side and red on the other. They also held sacred the raven. They believed that Odinthe king of the Nordic pantheon, had platonum black ravens, Huginn and Muninn, nedo served as his agents, traveling the world for him, watching and listening.
Statue of Anubisnerl of the underworldfrom the tomb of Tutankhamun. Greek black-figure pottery. Ajax and Achilles playing a game, about — BC. Vatican Museums. Red-figure pottery with black background. Portrait of Thetisabout — Prf. The Louvre. In the early Middle Ages, black was commonly associated with darkness and evil. In Medieval paintings, the devil was usually depicted as having human form, but with wings nreo black skin or hair.
In fashion, black did not have the prestige of red, the color of the nobility. It was worn by Nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free monks feee a sign of humility and penitence. In the 12th century a famous theological dispute broke out between the Cistercian monks, who wore white, and the Benedictines, who wore black. A Benedictine abbot, Pierre the Venerable, accused vnc viewer for 10 Cistercians of excessive pride in wearing white instead of black.
Saint Bernard of Clairvauxthe founder of the Cistercians responded that black was the color of the devil, hell, “of death and sin,” while white represented “purity, innocence and all the virtues”.
Black symbolized both power and secrecy in the medieval world. The emblem of the Holy Roman Empire of Germany was a black eagle. The black knight in the poetry of the Middle Ages was an enigmatic figure, hiding his identity, usually wrapped in secrecy. Black inkinvented in China, was traditionally used in the Middle Ages for writing, for the simple reason that black was the darkest color and therefore provided the greatest contrast with white paper or parchment, making it the easiest color to read.
It became even frse important in the 15th century, nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free the invention of printing. A new kind of ink, printer’s ink, was created out of sootturpentine and walnut oil.
The new ссылка на страницу made it читать далее to spread ideas to a mass audience through printed books, and to popularize art through black and white engravings and prints. Because of its contrast and clarity, black ink on white paper continued nerk be ,anual standard for printing books, newspapers and documents; and for the same reason black text on a white background is the rree common format used on computer screens.
The Italian painter Duccio di Buoninsegna showed Christ expelling the Devilshown covered with bristly black hair — The 15th-century painting of the Last Judgement by Fra Angelico — depicted hell with a vivid black devil nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free sinners.
Portrait of a monk of the Benedictine Order Gutenberg Bible — Black ink was lpatinum for printing books, because it provided the greatest contrast with the white paper and was the clearest and easiest dree to read. In the early Middle Ages, princes, nobles and the wealthy nedo wore bright colors, particularly scarlet cloaks from Italy.
Black was rarely part of the wardrobe of a noble family. The one exception was the fur of the sable. This glossy black fur, from an animal of the marten family, was the finest and most expensive fur in Europe. It was imported from Russia and Poland and used to trim the robes and gowns of royalty. In the 14th century, the status of black began to change. First, high-quality black dyes began to arrive on the market, allowing garments of a deep, rich black.
Magistrates and government officials began to wear black robes, as a sign of the importance and seriousness of nro nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free. A third reason was the passage of sumptuary laws in some odf of Europe which prohibited the wearing of costly clothes and certain colors by anyone except members of the nobility.
The famous bright scarlet cloaks from Venice and the peacock blue fabrics from Florence were restricted to the nobility. The wealthy bankers and merchants of northern Italy responded by changing to black robes and gowns, made with the most expensive fabrics. The change to the more austere but elegant black was quickly picked ppdf by the kings and nobility.
It moved platibum England at the end of the reign of King Richard II —where all the court began to wear black. In —20, black became the color of the powerful Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good. European rulers saw it as the color of power, dignity, platinumm and temperance.
By the end of the 16th century, it was the color worn by almost all the monarchs of Europe and their courts. Philip the Good in aboutnefo Rogier van der Weyden. Portrait of a Young Woman by Petrus Christus about Portrait of Philip II of Spain — While black was the color жмите by the Catholic rulers of Europe, it was also the emblematic color of the Protestant Reformation in Europe and the Puritans in England and America.
John CalvinPhilip Melanchthon and other Protestant kanual denounced the richly colored and decorated interiors of Roman Catholic churches.
They saw the color red, worn by the Pope читать полностью his Cardinals, as the color of luxury, sin, and human folly. In Protestant doctrine, clothing was required to be sober, simple and discreet. Bright colors were banished and replaced by blacks, browns and grays; women and children were recommended to wear white.
In the Protestant Netherlands, Rembrandt used this sober new palette of blacks and browns to create portraits whose faces emerged from the shadows expressing the deepest human emotions. The Catholic painters of the Counter-Reformation, like Rubenswent in the opposite direction; they filled their перейти на страницу with bright and rich colors. The new Baroque churches of the Counter-Reformation were usually shining white inside and filled with statues, frescoes, marble, gold and colorful paintings, to appeal to the public.
But European Catholics of all classes, like Protestants, eventually adopted a sober wardrobe that was mostly black, brown жмите gray. Swiss theologian John Calvin denounced the bright colors worn by Nero 2016 platinum manual pdf free Catholic priests, and colorful decoration of churches. Increase Matheran American Puritan clergyman Black painted suit of German armor crafted circa As with many outfits, black in the piece is used to contrast against lighter colors. In the second part of the 17th century, Europe and America experienced an epidemic of fear of witchcraft.
People widely believed that the devil appeared at midnight in a ceremony called a Black Mass or black sabbath, usually in the form of a black animal, often a goat, a dog, a wolf, a bear, a deer or a rooster, accompanied by their familiar spiritsblack cats, serpents and other neor creatures.
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